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Table 1 Characteristics of the Patients

From: Male sex and history of ischemic heart disease are major risk factors for anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic anterior resection in patients with rectal cancer

Parameter Total Anastomotic leakage (+) Anastomotic leakage (−) p
Number of patients 154 18 136  
Gender, m/f, n (%) 100/54 (65/35) 18/0 (100/0) 82/54 (60/40) 0.0003
Age, yr., mean ± SD (median, range) 67.1 ± 11.0 (69, 36–87) 64.7 ± 7.3 (63, 52–72) 67.4 ± 11.4 (70, 36–87) 0.12
BMI, kg/m2, mean ± SD (median, range) 23.0 ± 3.3 (22.9, 15.2–36.9) 23.5 ± 3.7 (22.9, 15.2–28.6) 22.9 ± 3.2 (22.9, 16.8–36.9) 0.27
BMI, ≥ 25, n (%) 38 (25) 8 (44) 30 (22) 0.08
ASA     1.00
 1 22 (14) 2 (11) 20 (15)  
 2 121 (79) 15 (83) 106 (78)  
 3 11 (7) 1 (6) 10 (7)  
Tumor location (from the anal verge), n (%)     0.32
 Upper (10–15 cm) 66 (43) 5 (28) 61 (45)  
 Middle (5–10 cm) 56 (36) 9 (50) 47 (35)  
 Lower (< 5 cm) 32 (21) 4 (13) 28 (21)  
Tumor size, mm, mean ± SD (median, range) 39.7 ± 20.4 (38, 7–170) 45.6 ± 19.3 (50, 7–80) 38.9 ± 20.4 (35, 8–170) 0.08
UICC-TNM Stage, n (%)     0.62
 0 2 (1) 0 (0) 2 (1)  
 I 46 (30) 6 (33) 40 (29)  
 II 40 (26) 5 (28) 35 (26)  
 III 45 (30) 3 (17) 42 (31)  
 IV 20 (13) 4 (22) 16 (12)  
 Unknown (CR case after preoperative chemotherapy) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (1)  
T category, n (%)     0.65
 Tis 2 (1) 0 (0) 2 (1)  
 T1 21 (14) 2 (11) 19 (14)  
 T2 36 (23) 4 (22) 32 (24)  
 T3 76 (49) 11 (61) 65 (48)  
 T4 16 (10) 0 (0) 16 (12)  
N category, n (%)     0.96
 N0 95 (62) 11 (61) 84 (62)  
 N1 40 (26) 5 (28) 35 (26)  
 N2 14 (9) 2 (11) 12 (9)  
 N3 5 (3) 0 (0) 5 (4)  
M category, n (%)     0.26
 M0 134 (87) 14 (78) 120 (88)  
 M1 20 (13) 4 (22) 16 (12)  
Preoperative chemotherapy, n (%) 11 (7) 1 (6) 10 (7) 1.00
Preoperative decompression, n (%) 2 (1) 0 (0) 2 (1) 1.00
WBC, × 102/μl, mean ± SD 63.5 ± 16.3 69.7 ± 15.2 62.7 ± 16.3 0.09
Plt, × 104/μl, mean ± SD 24.5 ± 6.7 26.4 ± 10.6 24.2 ± 6.0 0.19
Creatinine, mg/dl, mean ± SD 0.83 ± 0.28 1.05 ± 0.51 0.80 ± 0.23 <  0.001
Total cholesterol, mg/dl, mean ± SD 192 ± 38 177 ± 52 194 ± 36 0.10
Triglyceride, mg/dl, mean ± SD 122 ± 65 128 ± 68 122 ± 65 0.72
Total protein, g/dl, mean ± SD 7.5 ± 5.4 7.0 ± 0.4 7.5 ± 5.8 0.70
Albumin, g/dl, mean ± SD 4.4 ± 3.6 3.9 ± 0.5 4.4 ± 3.8 0.58
Blood sugar, mg/dl, mean ± SD 111 ± 33 127 ± 44 109 ± 31 0.06
Any comorbidity, n (%) 114 (74) 16 (89) 98 (72) 0.16
 Hypertension, n (%) 74 (48) 9 (50) 65 (48) 1.00
 Ischemic Heart Disease, n (%) 13 (8) 6 (33) 7 (5) 0.001
 Arrhythmia, n (%) 6 (4) 1 (6) 5 (4) 0.47
 Cerebrovascular Disease, n (%) 9 (6) 3 (17) 6 (4) 0.07
 Asthma, n (%) 5 (3) 1 (6) 4 (3) 0.47
 COPD, n (%) 5 (3) 0 (0) 5 (4) 1.00
 Diabetes Mellitus, n (%) 37 (24) 7 (39) 30 (22) 0.14
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 28 (18) 1 (6) 27 (20) 0.20
Smoking, n (%) 33 (21) 4 (22) 29 (21) 1.00
The use of antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant agent, n (%) 28 (18) 6 (33) 22 (16) 0.10
Type of operation     0.02
 High anterior resection 44 (29) 1 (6) 43 (32)  
 Low anterior resection 110 (71) 17 (94) 93 (68)  
High tie, n (%) 98 (64) 9 (50) 89 (65) 0.21
D     0.42
 2 47 (30) 7 (39) 40 (29)  
 3 107 (70) 11 (61) 96 (71)  
LN harvested, mean ± SD (median, range) 15.8 ± 7.6 (15, 2–40) 13.8 ± 5.3 (13, 5–23) 16.0 ± 7.9 (16, 2–40) 0.42
LN metastasized, mean ± SD (median, range) 1.6 ± 3.5 (0, 0–23) 1.4 ± 2.7 (0, 0–11) 1.6 ± 3.6 (0, 0–23) 0.97
Cur     0.20
 A 134 (87) 14 (78) 120 (88)  
 B 4 (3) 0 (0) 4 (3)  
 C 16 (10) 4 (22) 12 (9)  
Number of stapler firings, mean ± SD (median, range) 1.3 ± 0.5 (1, 1–3) 1.5 ± 0.5 (1, 1–2) 1.3 ± 0.5 (1, 1–3) 0.06
Number of stapler firings, ≥ 2 times (%) 46 (30) 9 (50) 37 (27) 0.06
Air leak test, n (%) 124 (81) 15 (83) 109 (80) 1.00
Air leak, air leak / air leak test (%) 4/124 (3) 1/15 (7) 3/109 (2) 0.33
Operative time, min, mean ± SD (median, range) 280 ± 93 (265, 134–692) 332 ± 118 (312, 160–631) 273 ± 87 (262, 134–692) 0.03
Post meridiem operation, n (%) 26 (17) 5 (28) 21 (15) 0.19
Operative blood loss, ml, mean ± SD (median, range) 84 ± 145 (25, 0–995) 131 ± 169 (60, 0–560) 78 ± 140 (20, 0–995) 0.07
Blood transfusion, n (%) 9 (6) 1 (6) 8 (6) 1.00
Temporary loop ileostomy, n (%) 23 (15) 2 (11) 21 (15) 1.00
Placement of transanal drain, n (%) 56 (36) 11 (61) 45 (33) 0.03
Postoperative stay, day, mean ± SD (median, range) 14.2 ± 11.6 (10, 7–77) 36.2 ± 19.4 (29, 10–77) 11.3 ± 5.7 (10, 7–43) <  0.01