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Table 3 Comparison between four papilla types

From: Duodenal major papilla morphology can affect biliary cannulation and complications during ERCP, an observational study

Papilla Type 1 (n = 118) 2 (n = 25) 3 (n = 63) 4 (n = 80) p value
Age 63 (50.5–74) 65 (58–78) 68 (55–77) 67 (57.25–75) 0.213
Gender-Male 66 (55.93%) 11 (44.00%) 31 (49.21%) 42 (52.50%) 0.670
Indication      0.589
 Stone 87 (73.73%) 16 (64.00%) 49 (77.78%) 57 (71.25%)  
 Cancer 21 (17.80%) 4 (16.00%) 7 (11.11%) 15 (18.75%)  
 Other 10 (8.47%) 5 (20.00%) 7 (11.11%) 8 (10.00%)  
Diabetes 27 (22.88%) 6 (24.00%) 21 (33.33%) 22 (27.50%) 0.490
Hypertension 43 (36.44%) 11 (44.00%) 26 (41.27%) 50 (62.50%) 0.003**
CVA 8 (6.78%) 2 (8.00%) 3 (4.76%) 6 (7.50%) 0.912
CRI 13 (11.02%) 2 (8.00%) 6 (9.52%) 7 (8.75%) 0.941
COPD 3 (2.54%) 0 (0.00%) 5 (7.94%) 1 (1.25%) 0.084
CAD 8 (6.78%) 2 (8.00%) 3 (4.76%) 5 (6.25%) 0.936
Cirrhosis 6 (5.08%) 2 (8.00%) 3 (4.76%) 3 (3.75%) 0.860
Pre-cut 8 (6.78%) 5 (20.00%) 10 (15.87%) 8 (10.00%) 0.117
Fail cannulation 2 (1.69%) 3 (12.00%) 7 (11.11%) 5 (6.25%) 0.037*
Pancreatic wire passage > 2 19 (16.10%) 8 (32.00%) 15 (23.81%) 22 (27.50%) 0.152
Pancreatic wire passage time 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–3) 0.036*
Cannulation time      0.001**
 0–5 min 67 (56.78%) 8 (32.00%) 19 (30.16%) 29 (36.25%)  
 5–10 min 31 (26.27%) 4 (16.00%) 21 (33.33%) 23 (28.75%)  
 > =10 min 20 (16.95%) 13 (52.00%) 23 (36.51%) 28 (35.00%)  
PAD Type      0.128
 0 65 (55.08%) 13 (52.00%) 42 (66.67%) 46 (57.50%)  
 2 12 (10.17%) 7 (28.00%) 5 (7.94%) 10 (12.50%)  
 3 41 (34.75%) 5 (20.00%) 16 (25.40%) 24 (30.00%)  
Biopsy 14 (11.86%) 2 (8.00%) 8 (12.70%) 9 (11.25%) 0.938
Sphincterotomy 99 (83.90%) 22 (88.00%) 56 (88.89%) 72 (90.00%) 0.600
ERBD 39 (33.05%) 9 (36.00%) 15 (23.81%) 23 (28.75%) 0.540
ERPD 6 (5.08%) 2 (8.00%) 5 (7.94%) 5 (6.25%) 0.872
Stone extraction 75 (63.56%) 14 (56.00%) 41 (65.08%) 49 (61.25%) 0.864
Lithotripsy 2 (1.69%) 1 (4.00%) 2 (3.17%) 2 (2.50%) 0.880
EPBD 2 (1.69%) 3 (12.00%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.25%) 0.003**
Platelet 230 (169.75–297.75) 201 (155.5–310) 197 (146–276) 211 (152.5–281.75) 0.426
PT 10 (10–11) 10 (9.8–10.7) 10 (10–11.1) 10 (10–10.9) 0.502
APTT 28 (26.2–29.93) 27 (25.63–29.85) 28 (26.4–30.35) 28 (26.5–29.55) 0.961
AST 116 (47–227) 53 (22.5–150.25) 105 (46.75–205) 104 (42.5–238) 0.205
ALT 140 (48–312.5) 50 (21.5–125.5) 125 (55–265) 114 (44.5–309.75) 0.022*
Bilirubin 3 (1.38–6.13) 4 (0.45–5.1) 4 (1.5–6.1) 3 (1–5.08) 0.503
Creatinine 1 (0.67–0.97) 1 (0.56–1.27) 1 (0.66–1.06) 1 (0.68–1.02) 0.970
Complications
 Perforation 1 (0.85%) 1 (4.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0.174
 Pancreatitis 8 (6.78%) 5 (20.00%) 1 (1.59%) 5 (6.25%) 0.020*
 Bleeding 6 (5.08%) 2 (8.00%) 1 (1.59%) 3 (3.75%) 0.525
 Cholangitis 3 (2.54%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 2 (2.50%) 0.520
  1. Kruskal-Wallis test. Chi-Square test. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01
  2. Continuous data were expressed as median and IQR
  3. Categorical data were expressed as number and percentage
  4. CVA Cerebral vascular disease, CRI Chronic renal insufficiency, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CAD Coronary artery disease, ERBD Endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage, ERPD Endoscopic retrograde pancreatic drainage, EPBD Endoscopic papilla balloon dilatation, PT Prothrombin Time, APTT Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time, AST Aspartate transaminase, ALT Alanine transaminase, PAD Periampullary diverticulum